Why does the shape matter? While the area around the tracks in Palo Alto is pretty flat, small variations in the terrain do have an effect on how the high speed rail project will be configured as it crosses through town. The vertical alignment of the tracks must not only conform to the surrounding grade, but it must be routed over or under every creek, road, pedestrian or bike crossing while conforming to acceleration limits imposed by passenger comfort as well as train stability and performance.
There have already been strong hints as to what shape this vertical alignment might take, as previously discussed in Focus on Palo Alto. As part of its program-level EIR/EIS, the California High Speed Rail Authority produced a set of maps of the Caltrain corridor that fueled a firestorm of controversy in Palo Alto, with residents worried that raised tracks would form a Berlin Wall and divide the city. While the CHSRA now professes to consider all vertical alignment options for its project-level EIR/EIS, ranging from tunnels to elevated tracks, there aren't that many feasible and affordable ways to design the vertical alignment of HSR tracks through Palo Alto-- and it turns out that the shape of Palo Alto can tell us a lot about what those are.
Working from Caltrain track survey data, here is the shape of Palo Alto, with the vertical scale greatly exaggerated: (click to expand)
- Palo Alto isn't as flat as you might think. Who knew that the University Ave station is nearly 40 feet higher than the California Ave station?
- There are only four grade crossings in all of Palo Alto
- Including overpasses, underpasses and grade crossings, there are only nine places where pedestrians and bikes may cross the tracks in all of Palo Alto, and only seven places where roads cross the tracks
- The entire southern half of Palo Alto has only two places where pedestrians can cross the tracks, and both of them are very busy intersections.
- Four creeks cross under the tracks
Constraints on Vertical Alignment
Before evaluating various vertical track profile options in Palo Alto--especially if you're going to have a charrette--it's important to lay out a few simple, fundamental design rules that govern what you can and can't make the tracks do.
- The maximum grade (how steep the tracks can be) will be limited. High speed trains and electric commuter trains can easily climb 2% or 2.5% grades. Freight trains can't climb as steeply, and work best at 1% or maybe 1.5%.
- The radius of vertical curves (humps and sags) is constrained by maximum train speed. The vertical curves have to be gentle, unlike a roller coaster, to keep passengers comfortable and keep the train stable on the tracks as it crests over a hill. For 125 mph (200 km/h) operation, here are some typical track design standards:
Standard (at 125 mph) Typical Radius Minimum Radius European Technical Standard of Interoperability 14 km (9 mi) 10 km (6 mi) Germany 16 km (10 mi) 10 km (6 mi) Sweden 17 km (11 mi) 10 km (6 mi)
Some standards do allow vertical curves with a radius barely over 6 km (4 mi), but only in exceptional circumstances. For the peninsula, using the minimum value of 10 km is probably a good starting point. This radius results in a vertical acceleration of 0.3 m/s2, or about 1/3 to 1/4 of the acceleration you might feel in a typical elevator--infinitely smoother than a roller coaster!
- To the extent possible, the vertical profile should avoid obstacles like creeks or existing overpasses and underpasses. While earthworks and concrete can be used to solve any such puzzle, the cost may be prohibitive.
- Where roads cross under the tracks, the vertical distance between the road surface and the top of the rails must be 20 feet to clear trucks and buses.
- Where tracks cross under roads, the vertical distance between the road surface and the top of the rails must be 30 feet to clear freight trains and overhead electrification.
The Elevated Scenario
Elevating the tracks over Palo Alto's few remaining grade crossings is one scenario being proposed by the California High Speed Rail Authority, and is likely the cheapest.
Taking a step back: the only reason to elevate track that isn't already elevated is to lift the track over a road or pedestrian underpass, also known as a grade separation. The only place where that might happen is in the vicinity of grade crossings. Elevating the track anywhere else would serve no purpose and is not being contemplated.
Here's what the elevated scenario might look like:
- All vertical curve radii are 10 km (6 miles)
- At Charleston and Meadow, the tracks are raised by 7 feet and the road sunk by 13 feet. This embankment height was given in the CHSRA's program EIR/EIS maps.
- At Churchill, the tracks are raised by 15 feet, with 1.5% ramps. The CHSRA's program EIR/EIS maps showed the embankment starting well north of Palo Alto high school, presumably to avoid dipping down and back up; however, there is absolutely no harm in the hilly profile shown here. The only people who might dislike it are freight train operators, not HSR, because of slack action. Speaking of freight trains, this embankment could be made even shorter and steeper if it didn't have to be designed with the gentle grades required for freight trains.
- Alma (a.k.a. Palo Alto Ave) is lowered to cross under the existing track level.
- As evident in the diagram, any claims of a continuous 20-foot wall bisecting Palo Alto from one end to the other are exaggerated.
With respect to the outcry over the community impact of raised embankments, it's worth looking at another scenario... and it doesn't involve tunnels! While tunnels are often contemplated as the only possible alternative to embankments, it is possible to grade separate the Palo Alto crossings by depressing the tracks into trenches. Trenches are preferable to tunnels because they can be narrower and involve far less earth moving and concrete works... although still far more work than embankments.
Here is what the depressed scenario might look like:
- Note the length of the grade separations increases considerably, since they must dive a full 30 feet under street level and do so with gentle, train-friendly grades. The excavation itself would be even deeper, since the red curve is drawn at the top-of-rail level. Do note that accommodation of freight trains requires an extra 3 feet of vertical clearance.
- The trenches are shown with 1.5% ramps. Shallower ramps are not possible, since the natural grade is already nearly 1% near the Churchill crossing. Steeper ramps (2% or 2.5%) would be possible if it weren't for those freight trains. (Do we see a pattern yet with those pesky freight trains?)
- At Churchill, the northern ramp would not clear the existing Embarcadero grade separation. This complication might be solved by locally depressing Alma to match the track level, and rebuilding Embarcadero as a low overpass rather than an underpass--but as always, the devil is in the details.
- At Charleston and Meadow, the trench would encompass the existing location of the Barron and Adobe creeks. Grade-separating the creeks is possible, but it involves lots of concrete, pumps, and ongoing maintenance expenses.
The Big Picture
Despite the recent controversy in Palo Alto, the city is not even close to being the most difficult to build high speed rail. There are far more challenging puzzles up and down the peninsula, for example downtown San Mateo. Many of the same design principles apply to any location on the peninsula, and as time allows we'll start discussing some more of these puzzles. As for Palo Alto, the squeaky wheel gets the blog grease!